Rehabilitation

Physiotherapy helps restore movement and function to as near normal as possible when someone is affected by a brain injury. Neuromuscular (brain, nervous system and musculoskeletal system) specialist physiotherapists play an essential role in the multidisciplinary team, working with brain injured persons. The role of a physiotherapist starts right from the acute stage (initial days after the injury) of brain injury through the rehabilitation phase to the long term care.

In the acute stages, the physios work with the injured person to maintain/ improve their respiratory status, commonly known as chest physio. This helps the injured person to clear the secretions from their airways thereby minimizing chances of infections and promoting weaning of tracheostomy tube if appropriate. Physios also deal with maintaining range of motion of the joints in the body by exercises and positioning them. Physiotherapists contribute to the multisensory stimulation program (sometimes called as coma stimulation) along with the other members of the team. Also, early mobilization of the patient from bed to chair/tilt table, standing, walking are also carried out whenever possible.

Sports

Physical therapists are closely involved in the care and wellbeing of athletes including recreational, semi-professional (paid) and professional (full-time employment) participants.
This area of practice encompasses athletic injury management under 5 main categories : Sports rehabilitation


1. Acute care - assessment and diagnosis of an initial injury;


2. Treatment - application of specialist advice and techniques to encourage healing;


3. Rehabilitation - progressive management for full return to sport;


4. Prevention - identification and address of deficiencies known to directly result in, or act as precursors to injury, such as movement assessment


5. Education - sharing of specialist knowledge to individual athletes, teams or clubs to assist in prevention or management of injury


Physical therapists who work for professional sport teams often have a specialized sports certification issued through their national registering organisation. Most Physical therapists who practice in a sporting environment are also active in collaborative sports medicine programs too (athletic trainers).

Aquatic Physiotherapy

Also known as hydrotherapy, Exercises done in the water to achieve therapeutic goals

Postural Management

Assessment and management of the posture of persons with brain injury. Includes provision of wheelchairs and bed positioning equipment. Considers the persons positioning needs round the clock.

Serial Casting

Making a series of casts to increase ROM in joints, once the desired effect is achieved a new cast is made in the new range of the joint.

Splints (Orthoses):

Use of external support to maintain the joint position, can be pre-fabricated or custom made.

Cardiovascular & pulmonary Physiotherapy

Cardiovascular and pulmonary rehabilitation respiratory practitioners and physical therapists offer therapy for a wide variety of cardiopulmonary disorders or pre and post cardiac or pulmonary surgery.

Strengthening

Exercises designed to increase the strength of the active muscles.

Stretching

Can be Passive (done by the physiotherapist) or Active (performed by the person with brain injury). A technique to stretch the length of the muscle, used to reduce spasticity and maintain/improve range of motion

Clinical electrophysiology

This specialty area includes electrotherapy/physical agents, electrophysiological evaluation (EMG/NCV), physical agents, and wound management.

Geriatric Physical therapy

Geriatric physical therapy covers a wide area of issues concerning people as they go through normal adult aging but is usually focused on the older adult.

Neurological Physical therapy

Neurological physical therapy is a field focused on working with individuals who have a neurological disorder or disease. These can include stroke, chronic back pain, Alzheimer's disease, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), ALS, brain injury, cerebral palsy,

Pediatrics Physical therapy

Pediatric physical therapy assists in early detection of health problems and uses a limited variety of modalities to provide physical therapy for disorders in the pediatric population. congenital, developmental, neuromuscular, skeletal, or acquired disorders/diseases. Treatments focus mainly on improving gross and fine motor skills, balance and coordination, strength and endurance as well as cognitive and sensory processing/integration

Women's health

Women's health physical therapy mostly addresses women's issues related to the female reproductive system, child birth, and post-partum.

Integumentary Physical therapy

Integumentary physical therapy includes the treatment of conditions involving the skin and all its related organs. Common conditions managed include wounds and burns. Physical therapists may utilize surgical instruments, wound irrigations, dressings and topical agents to remove the damaged or contaminated tissue and promote tissue healing.

Orthopedics Physical therapy

Orthopedic physical therapists diagnose, manage, and treat disorders and injuries of the musculoskeletal system including rehabilitation after orthopedic surgery. orthopedic procedures, fractures, acute sports injuries, arthritis, sprains, strains, back and neck pain, spinal conditions, and amputations.

Sports Physical therapy

Physical therapists are closely involved in the care and wellbeing of athletes including recreational Physical therapists who practice in a sporting environment are also active in collaborative sports medicine programs too (athletic trainers).

Palliative Care

Physiotherapy in the field of oncology and palliative care is a continuously evolving and developing specialty, both in malignant and non-malignant diseases.

This specialty area includes electrotherapy/physical agents, electrophysiological evaluation (EMG/NCV), physical agents, and wound management.

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